Print version of chapter
One of the basic concepts of California water
law is that water appropriated must be put to
beneficial use or it may be lost.
Water rights are within the jurisdiction of state
law and, while the Raker
Act guaranteed that the City of San Francisco
would not interfere with minimum flows to the
Modesto and Turlock Irrigation Districts, it specifically
disclaimed any interference with state water-rights
With the City of San Francisco firmly established
on the Tuolumne River watershed, the irrigation
districts had to put their water to work or risk
defaulting it to the bay city.
While this consequence was present in the minds
of some, the overriding demand for the development
of new storage facilities on the Tuolumne came,
however, from farmers whose water ran out in July
and August. This left them at least one full irrigation
short of the amount needed to mature tree crops
fully. Extra irrigations also would insure additional
cuttings of alfalfa.
Although the Modesto district looked briefly
at high-mountain reservoir sites in Yosemite National
Park, an ideal location existed a short distance
upstream from La Grange Dam. About a mile below
Don Pedro Bar, the Tuolumne River rushed through
a deep, narrow gorge of solid rock. Just above
the gorge, two canyons branched out to provide
a large natural storage area.
Don Pedro Bar got its name from a don of Spanish
descent. Some say he was from Mexico, others claim
he was a Chilean. Long before the gold rush reached
the area, he is said to have taken seven or more
donkey loads ? the number increases every time
the story is told ? of gold out of the area. Tales
of a lost Spanish mine, presumed to be one of
the richest in the state, go back to the days
before the discovery at Coloma touched off the
1849 gold rush.
The gorges of the Tuolumne River, including Don
Pedro Bar, Red Mountain Bar and Six Bit Gulch
in the 1850s, proved to be one of the richest
placer mining areas in the world, yielding uncounted
millions for the hundreds who sought their fortunes
In a 1922 interview with Stockton Record
reporter Shelden Davis, "Uncle Jimmy" Hammond,
then a partner in Hammond & Bates Grocery
in La Grange, recalled as a child "seeing them
uncover the soil at a point just above where the
dam is going up and seeing the gold ? quantities
"The miners would let us run our fingers through
The town of Don Pedro Bar quickly sprang up and
in 1860 some 1,500 voters went to the polls there
on the day that Abraham Lincoln was elected United
States president. There were two streets, a pair
of hotels, a "fandango" house, a restaurant, a
bakery and even a brewery. There were no churches,
but a temperance hall was located in a semi-isolated
The town was destroyed by fire in 1864. With
the gold fever dying, the village never was restored.
Most of the residents, including many pioneer
families still prominent in Stanislaus County,
resettled in La Grange. A few Chinese were left
to rework the diggings.
By the time the Modesto and Turlock Irrigation
Districts built Don Pedro Dam and Reservoir, the
only remnants of the once-lively town were a few
fire-blackened chimneys, a cemetery with about
30 graves, only seven of which were marked with
headstones, and one resident, Lee Bung.
Some claimed Lee, generally called "Bung", was
110 to 120 years old, which would have made him
the oldest man in California. More likely to be
about 90, Lee reportedly had come to Don Pedro
Bar in 1854 at about the age of 20. He was the
last to leave before the waters covered the once
gold-rich bars, for the cemetery had been relocated
The gold of Don Pedro Bar was gone by the mid
1860s, but half a century later other riches far
more valuable than the gold were being recognized:
In August 1908 the two districts began to talk
about the need for additional storage in that
vicinity and two years later they joined in a
study of water rights above La Grange Dam. First,
they looked at the rights of the La Grange Ditch
and Mining Company La Grange Water Power Company.
Two years later, a couple of inconclusive meetings
were held to consider a partnership proposal with
the Yosemite Power Company.
On its own initiative the Turlock district investigated
the ultimate Don Pedro site and bought the first
land for the project. Preliminary studies were
completed in 1913 ? in which Modesto?s rainfall
totaled only 4.30 inches. It also was the year
the City of San Francisco cemented its hold on
the upper reaches of the Tuolumne.
In December 1913 plans and specifications prepared
by TID Engineer Roy V. Meikle were accepted by
the TID board. The directors called for the construction
of the reservoir and applied to the U. S. Department
of the Interior for the right to use government
lands for reservoir purposes above Don Pedro Bar.
While aware of the Turlock district?s activities,
the Modesto district was not yet willing to join
in the venture. Relations between the two partners
were strained due to Turlock?s refusal earlier
that month to support fully Modesto?s last-ditch
efforts to block the Raker Act in the U. S. Senate.
Although the late historian Paul Christian contended
that the Raker Act provided an "adhesive bond"
between the districts, the glue was not to stick
for a few more years and at least one Modesto
Apparently acting on its own in 1915, the Modesto
district appealed to the House of Representatives
Committee on Appropriations for federal assistance
to build a dam on the Tuolumne. MID Chief Engineer
F. C. Herrmann sought federal funding from the
committee at field hearings in Redding. The reception
was most cool.
After that, Modesto somewhat reluctantly joined
in a December 15, 1915, resolution by which the
Modesto and Turlock districts agreed to build
a reservoir at Don Pedro "at such future time
Modesto was hesitant to accept the engineering
and economic feasibility findings of the TID engineers
and wanted its own independent confirmation that
it was a good project. Christian properly labeled
"partly caution, partly contrariness."
Matters came to a head in 1918.
While the TID continued preliminary work, Modesto
stood on the sidelines watching. By the start
of that year, the time had come to make substantial
investments in test borings and other field work.
Turlock invited Modesto to share the costs of
the next phase of feasibility investigations.
With no positive response from its neighboring
district, the Turlock board feared the Modesto
district might back out then or at some future
date. In accordance with an 1890 working agreement,
the Turlock board put Modesto on notice to get
in or get out within 60 days. Turlock had purchased
the land, applied for U. S. Department of Interior
permits and was about to call a bond election.
Turlock not only wanted to know the MID ?s intentions,
but also demanded reimbursement of $20,000 toward
the cost of land which it already had purchased
without Modesto?s consent.
The Modesto board replied on February 27, 1918,
with a formal resolution declaring that the MID
had no part in the selection of the site, did
not have $20,000 budgeted to pay for its share
of the land bought by the TID, was not sure of
the project?s feasibility or whether the site
selected was the best choice. Without further
information, it was not in a position to become
involved in investigations which would cost the
MID upward of $100,000.
Again the Modesto board raised the five-year-old
issue of the Turlock board?s refusal to join Modesto
in fighting the Raker Act, contending that the
TID had assisted San Francisco "take away" from
the Tuolumne River 400,000 gallons per day when
it should have been fighting exportation of the
water from the San Joaquin Valley. The MID board
stated it would continue to "use every means possible"
With that, the Modesto board said it might want
into the project later, but not at that time.
And it took the matter one step further. Declaring
that it "sympathized" with the Turlock district
and its water users, the Modesto board, nevertheless,
voted 3-2 ? Directors C. A. Hilton and J. S. Tully
dissenting ? to abrogate that portion of the 1890
MID -TID working agreement which declared that
whenever one district gave notice it was proceeding
with a project, the other had 60 days in which
to become a participant or for all time lose the
The reaction of both Modesto district farmers
and city people was immediate and violent.
The Modesto Chamber of Commerce and Merchants
Association petitioned the MID board to rescind
its action. Director Allen Talbot, who had voted
for the resolution, reported that a March 2nd
meeting sponsored by the Farmers Union had attracted
hundreds of people who were virtually unanimous
in their demands that the MID board reconsider.
Newspaper reports said MID directors who tried
to explain their position were shouted down.
After a lengthy "informal" discussion between
the two boards on March 11th, the Modesto
board by a 4-0 vote changed its position on March
18th and agreed to cooperate, accepting
completely the TID proposal. Director Fred W.
Way, who originally had opposed joining the TID,
was absent. He resigned shortly thereafter. Thus,
the 1890 agreement was reinstated with the understanding
that in the future neither district would proceed
on any aspect of the project without first conferring
with the other.
In April 1918 the two boards met and finally
agreed without dissent on one thing: The dam should
be named Don Pedro.
Once the Department of Interior approved Turlock?s
application for the use of public lands, the districts
joined to proceed with comprehensive feasibility
Based on the strong recommendation of the U.
S. Bureau of Reclamation, consulting engineer
A. J. Wylie of Boise, Idaho, was hired. Wylie
had just completed the federal agency?s huge Arrowhead
Dam in Idaho, then the largest in the world. In
October, Wylie and his associate, Ross White,
confirmed all of TID Engineer Meikle?s earlier
findings, reporting that conditions not only were
excellent for the construction of a storage reservoir,
but they also would be ideal for the generation
According to then current irrigation laws, however,
the districts were precluded from the developments
of hydroelectric power for any purpose not directly
related to irrigation.
Stanislaus County?s two representatives in the
California Legislature were good friends of irrigation.
Modesto attorney Esto Broughton, whose father
was to serve as an MID director, took office in
January 1919 as one of the first women to serve
in the state Assembly. L. L. Dennett had served
as the MID ?s attorney for years before his election
to the state Senate.
The districts turned to them for help.
On January 20, 1919, Senator Dennett introduced
an act to provide for the development of power
by irrigation districts. Six days later Assemblywoman
Broughton introduced an identical bill. The districts
lobbied hard for passage of the legislation.
The Broughton bill passed the Assembly March
31st. Senator Dennett deferred to the
lady, withdrew his bill was approved by the Senate
April 16th. Governor William D. Stephens
signed the bill into law May 21, 1919.
Three days before the bill was to become effective
July 22, 1919, the districts decided to proceed
with construction of the dam and the powerhouse.
Once again the Modesto and Turlock Irrigation
Districts were leading the field when, without
a dissenting vote, a formal decision was made
on July 24, 1919, to incorporate generating facilities
as part of the project.
At the same time, it was agreed that the two
districts would share future project expenses
and water and power benefits in strict proportion
to the number of acres in each district: 31.54
percent for Modesto and 68.46 percent for Turlock.
This was the first time the division of costs
and benefits had been so specific. The cost of
La Grange Dam was divided half-and-half. In 1909
when the two districts explored the upper Tuolumne
River for storage potentials and two years later
in meeting some joint legal costs, they split
the costs generally on a one-third/two-thirds
basis. When it came to the major expense of building
Don Pedro, the Turlock district demanded a breakdown
strictly in accordance with the acreage served:
81,183 acres in the MID and 176,210 acres in the
TID. After holding out for the less precise split,
the MID agreed reluctantly.
The division of costs and benefits was to be
challenged in a 1932 lawsuit brought by Modesto
attorney W. C. LeHane, but the case never was
brought to trial.
The Modesto district agreed to reimburse Turlock
for its share of earlier expenses and, in turn,
Turlock transferred to Modesto the title to 31.54
percent of the reservoir and dam-site land and
water rights it had acquired earlier. The districts
subsequently filed for an additional 325,000 acre
feet of storage rights for power and irrigation.
From that point on, things moved quickly.
Based on Wylie?s recommendations, it was agreed
that the structure would be a solid concrete gravity
dam 283 feet high, 1,000 feet long and 16 feet
wide at the crest and 170 feet wide at the base.
A construction budge of $3,375,000 for the dam
was adopted. Modesto would issue $1,182,700 in
bonds to finance its share of the dam and reservoir
and $192,000 for the generating facilities. Turlock?s
share would be $2,567,300 for the dam and $417,000
for the power plant.
On January 12, 1920, a petition containing the
names of 1,315 MID residents called for an election
on $2 million worth of bonds to finance the district?s
share of the Don Pedro Project cost.
Although an agreement provided that either district
could construct the power plant independently
if the other decided not to enter the energy field,
there was no doubt in the minds of either board
as to the value of the generating potential. The
Modesto board, in a conservative moment of caution,
however, decided to leave the matter up to the
voters. The bond election scheduled for February
17th actually had five separate bond
issues on one ballot:
For construction of the dam and reservoir, $1,180,000;
for construction of the power plant, $181,600;
for an electrical transmission system, $298,400;
for enlarging the upper main canal, $150,000,
and for drainage works, $190,000.
Except for the drainage works, all phases were
inter-related, for once the reservoir was in operation,
the upper main canal and associated works had
to be enlarged to handle the increased volumes
of water made available to irrigators. Although
drainage works were considered an independent
issue, some argued that more irrigation would
aggravate the water-table problem.
The results were overwhelming. The dam and reservoir
bonds were voted 1,827-184. The power plant was
approved, 1,715-190; the upper main canal works,
1,746-158; the drainage works, 1,608-269, and
the electrical transmission system, 1,646-219.
The only dissent was in Salida?s Division 4,
represented by Director J. B. Trask, who had been
at odds with the TID for some time. There, voters
disapproved of the dam, reservoir and generating
facilities. They approved, however, of increasing
the capacity of the main canal and improving drainage
With that monumental vote of confidence, the
Modesto board once again confirmed its intent
to build Don Pedro as a joint project. But the
harmony was to be short lived.
At a joint meeting on March 10th,
the two boards agree to put TID Engineer Meikle
in charge of the project with MID Engineer Percy
Jones as his assistant. Wylie would continue as
A few days later, the fight was on again.
The Modesto board balked, demanding that the
three engineers have equal responsibilities. Still
miffed that the TID had pushed ahead with the
project and then put Modesto directors in the
"take it or leave it" situation, the MID board
refused to ratify the agreement. A majority of
the Modesto directors argued the TID was trying
to make them "rubber stamp dummies," which they
Later that month a joint meeting which was designed
to "consolidate" actions of the two districts
was described in press reports as the stormiest
encounter yet between the MID and TID Boards of
Directors. After that, the MID board refused to
The voters had different ideas.
At a mass meeting held late in March, nearly
2,000 people demanded that the MID directors meet
immediately with their Turlock counterparts and
resolve their differences. When MID board members
present tried to defend themselves, the reaction
was described as "near violent." Still, the Modesto
As the project entered its second month of delay,
MID Engineer Jones reported that enough water
to fill Don Pedro one-and-a-half times had spilled
over the top of La Grange Dam so far that spring.
With $2 million in bonds already voted and water
going to waste, farmers and city residents alike
saw no reason for further delay and promptly recalled
the three directors who had refused to ratify
the March 10th agreement, Trask Talbot
and Axel W. Stratton.
Fifteen days after the June 1st recall
election, in what the Modesto Morning Herald
referred to as a "completely harmonious" meeting
of the two boards, Meikle was confirmed as project
engineer and Jones as assistant. Smooth working
relations were established, with agreement that
each board would ratify independently any decision
"Harmony and a desire by the members of both
boards to cooperate in the construction of Don
Pedro Dam was the dominant feature of the meeting
and of greatest importance to the residents of
"the Modesto paper declared.
It was time to get down to work.
Bids for construction of the dam were opened
February 24, 1921. The engineer?s estimate was
$3,723,598, but the low bid of R. C. Storrie and
Company was $4,098,530. Utah Construction, the
only other bidder, had placed the figure at $4,127,780.
Both were rejected as too high and bids were sought
a second time.
This time 10 firms submitted 13 bids, all cost-plus
proposals. The districts had three alternatives:
accept an uncertain cost-plus contract, advertise
again in the hope of better bids, or build the
project under their own superintendency, be their
own contractor in other words.
Although the 1921 water year was to be a normal
one, the four preceding years had been substantially
below normal. To readvertise probably would delay
the project through one more irrigation season.
Comments made in later years by Meikle indicated
he pressed hard to proceed by "force account"
with expanded district staffs. This decision was
made March 10th, with the Turlock board
unanimous but the MID board divided. Directors
J. W. Guyler, D. W. Morris and H. J. Coffee voted
to proceed; E. L. Routh and C. A. Hilton dissented.
And so it was that the two Stanislaus County
irrigation districts undertook on their own one
of the largest dam-building projects in the world.
Engineer D. H. Duncanson was employed at $1,000
a month as project superintendent and work was
ordered to proceed.
The first task facing the districts was building
their own railroad. Started in April 1921, a $209,913
standard-gauge line was built from the gravel
bars in the Stanislaus Railway. The gravel trains
would use this route to Hetch Hetchy Junction.
A new line would carry trains an additional 8.5
miles from there to Don Pedro. This was a trip
of 33 miles from gravel pits to the dam-site terminal.
By October the railroad was delivering 20 carloads
of gravel each day, plus heavy equipment and all
other supplies needed for the project.
Workers were on the job in May and on June 25,
1921, Modesto Board Chairman Hilton and TID Director
S. A. Hultman simultaneously pressed buttons to
explode the first charge of dynamite to officially
commence work on the dam proper. Two years later
to the day, Hultman presided at the dedication
of the completed project.
The summer of 1921 was filled with preliminary
work, such as building barracks and family housing,
a mess hall, a hospital ? the Herald boasted
that it was "complete with up-to-date Xray" ?
and a schoolhouse. About half the workers were
married with families. When teacher Sophia C.
Tucker opened school on November 17th,
she had 22 pupils on the roll.
A small community quickly took shape. Don Pedro
Bar in those days was a long way from anywhere
and social and cultural activities were important.
The latter did not include a pool hall, although
an application was made by an enterprising businessman
to provide one. The suggestion was ignored by
the Modesto board.
Prohibition only recently had been voted and
sobriety was the rule, but on at least one occasion
the kitchen crew used some of the large mess hall
pots to experiment with making whiskey. Informal
reports indicated they were not too successful.
Modesto?s papers carried daily news reports on
the progress at Don Pedro, mostly filled with
social events such as the report that 150 had
turned out for the Halloween ball, with an added
comment that, "Many parties help to keep up the
Also noteworthy were the days when "smiling,
good-natured" stage driver Roy Alverson failed
to show up on his regular run from Modesto to
the camp. The arrival of the stage always was
On October 27, 1921, when the first concrete
was poured at the dam, the Herald account
headlined this construction milestone. The story
by the Don Pedro correspondent, however, first
told about a surprise birthday party given Mrs.
Dallas Duncan with a table "loaded with delicious
cakes and the fragrant odor of Java filling the
Actual construction work was under way now. The
excavation work was minimal except for the spillway
to be constructed on the north side of the dam.
Test borings had revealed a riverbed of hard,
blue flint rock 200 feet deep. No more than a
foot of surface rock had to be cleared before
reaching a base stable and solid enough to hold
a structure towering more than 25 stories high.
The spillway posed problems, however, because
the rock formation was rife with seams filled
with clay. The deeper the excavation, the worse
it became. A total of 130,000 cubic yards of rock
and soil were excavated for the spillway alone,
more than four-and-a-half times the amount of
excavation required for the rest of the dam.
The problem was how to support a 45-foot deep
spillway channel on an extremely steep ledge with
poor rock. The solution was to make the spillway
lip, which carries the gates, of massive concrete
with only enough reinforcing steel to allow for
temperature stresses. Grouting down to green rock,
50 or more feet below the surface, and a massive
concrete slope wall proved economical and efficient,
withstanding extreme flood runoffs over the years.
The dam began to take form by late October with
the pouring of the first concrete, an event which
the Morning Herald glowingly recorded.
The results would "stand a noted mark of workmanship
for time to come as the greatest efforts ever
put forth by our worthy districts of both Turlock
and Modesto Irrigation Districts to supply patrons
the water that shall make Turlock and Modesto
Following a special tour of the project, Howard
Bartlett of the Morning Herald made a special
progress report December 4, 1921:
That the construction of Don Pedro
Dam is way ahead of schedule is due to the wonderful
organization gathered together by D. H. Duncanson,
who has built several of the largest dams in the
country. Ross White, resident engineer, is also
entitled to a great deal of credit for the fine
support and assistance he has given Duncanson.
Those familiar with the sound of
a 100-stamp quartz mill will only be able to understand
what kind of a noise the concrete mixers, gasoline
trains and air drills throw out into the Tuolumne
River canyon. Like a town born of an oil boom,
the little village and works at Don Pedro has
sprung up like an army camp and everything in
it, including the workers, carry an air of alertness.
Bartlett reported work was progressing on both
sides of the canyon: "practically two dams were
being erected," separated by a 15-foot waterway
to allow for the rise of the river during high
water. At the time, both sides were approximately
35 feet high. The diversion channel, which ultimately
was 50 feet tall before it was topped off, was
to be closed the summer of 1922 when minimum runoffs
At the time of Bartlett?s October report, 500
yards of concrete was being poured each day, but
Superintendent Duncanson predicted this soon would
increase to at least 1,000 yards a day. By Christmas,
another 20 feet would be added to the dam?s height.
Excavation for the south wing of the dam had
commenced. On the north wing, part of the excavation
was completed and Bartlett told of grouting by
""powerful concrete guns with air pressure (provided
by 300 horsepower compressors) used to shoot concrete
down into the ground to fill up any crevices which
During Bartlett?s tour, Duncanson, who served
as superintendent of the La Grange Dam during
the latter part of construction, commented on
some of the differences between the two:
We had only four men working in
the dining room (at La Grange) and here we have
26. The La Grange Dam was built of stone and cement
and few people know that only 25 per cent of the
dam is stone and 75 cement. Construction was begun
in 1889 and was completed in 1893. Small cables
were used in those days and were called upon to
lift rocks weighing 12 tons and now, with the
same cable, we consider such a trick dangerous.
Only one man was killed on the La Grange job,
and I hope to complete the Don Pedro job without
By December 18th, the Herald published
what it labeled as the "First Airplane View Ever
Published of the Don Pedro Dam Construction,"
reporting Duncanson had exceeded his estimates.
The dam already was 60 feet high and work was
20 days ahead of schedule. Completion by the end
of 1922 was possible, which would mean the filling
The sluice gates were installed in the base of
the dam and nearly 5,000 barrels of cement had
been used so far, with orders for 50,000 to 200,000
more barrels to be placed within a week. From
200 to 275 men were employed on the Tuolumne River,
with another 75-man camp maintained at the Stanislaus
River gravel pits.
Immediately following the optimistic report,
heavy rains set in, destroying the hopes of completion
in 1922. Work was not to resume again until late
January. The rains had caused the railroad tracks
to settle and supply trains were stopped for two
weeks during repairs. Plant equipment was damaged
by the heavy downpour, which raised the level
of water to within 5 feet of the lower portion
"all but be observed."
By late February the Stockton Record?s
Davis reported work was progressing on schedule
again with a realistic completion date set for
the early spring of 1923. David described the
work of placing 800 yards of concrete a day:
Dropping into the canyon for a
maximum distance of 600 feet, the steel concrete
chutes are day by day building up the great Don
Pedro Dam across the Tuolumne River. Suspended
from two-inch cable ways, the larger conduit swings
like a gigantic reptile and spits its concrete
mixture just where it is required.
He forecast that as the dam got taller and wider,
the pouring would increase to 1,200 yards per
day. The work crew now was up to 400 men.
Cement was moved directly from boxcars to the
mixers. Sacks were unloaded into a pair of two-yard
concrete mixers and the empty sacks thrown into
a shaker which shook every last particle of cement
dust from it, thus saving much cement. Aggregate
was hauled 600 feet from bunkers to the mixers
by two gasoline-powered narrow gauge trains.
During spring and summer, work went well. By
May 22, 1922, seven months after the first pour,
a total of 101,000 cubic yards of concrete was
in place. It was estimated that the job would
take 280,000 cubic yards of concrete. By mid-November
water was beginning to back up against the dam.
The two irrigation districts stored enough water
behind the still unfinished dam to extend the
irrigation season until September 15th
for the first time in history.
The last concrete was poured March 15, 1923,
A total of 296,552 cubic yards of concrete had
created a dam 284 feet high, 177 feet thick at
the base and 16 feet thick at the crest, which
extended 1,040 feet across the Tuolumne River
canyon ? the highest gravity dam in the world.
Behind the dam was formed a reservoir 14 miles
long and 3 miles wide with a total storage capacity
of 290,400 acre feet, covering 3,180 acres at
The total cost of the dam, not including the
powerhouse, which cost an additional $1,140,340,
was $3,724,000 and the job had been done by the
two irrigation districts serving as their own
Although basically completed, it took until early
June for the finishing touches. The official dedication
was held on June 25, 1923, two years to the day
from the official start of the monumental effort.
Fifteen days earlier, the reservoir had filled
to capacity. Approximately 1,000 people made the
tortuous 40-mile trip to Don Pedro for the dedication
and to view the now-filled lake.
Enough water was captured behind the reservoir
that year to extend the irrigation season until
October 12th. Nearly 62,000 acres were
irrigated, nearly 10 times the area watered just
a score of years earlier. In 1924 when the rainfall
during the water year was less than five inches,
the season still lasted until September 27th.
After that, October 15th became the
normal time to end irrigations.
Only twice since Don Pedro was constructed has
irrigation water been cut off in August: 1931
and 1934, two years in the midst of the extended
1928-1934 drought when rainfall was well below
Modesto?s 95-year annual average of 12.05 inches.
Turlock Director Hultman, who presided at the
dedication ceremonies, summed up the celebration
by declaring: "We meet today to dedicate the Don
Pedro Dam and Powerhouse, the highest dam and
the first powerhouse to be constructed and operated
by the people of an irrigation district or union
Once again the Modesto Irrigation District and
the Turlock Irrigation District were leading the
way for the rest of the state and nation.